The ancient Greek historian Arrian cited the "old racial rivalry between the Greeks and Macedonians" that led to this hatred on both sides.
The Iranian satraps were perhaps not efficient, for, out of 18, 10 were removed or executed—with what justice it is no longer possible to say. The army continued advancing as far as the river Hydaspes but at this point the Macedonians refused to go farther as reports were coming of far more larger and dangerous armies ahead equipped with many elephants and chariots.
A very difficult seven-month siege of the city followed. In autumn Hephaestion died in Ecbatanaand Alexander indulged in extravagant mourning for his closest friend; he was given a royal funeral in Babylon with a pyre costing 10, talents. They had conquered the east, but now they saw that the conquered nations were taking over the army.
This was to be an example to the rest of Greece and Athens and the other Greek city-states quickly rethought their quest for freedom. How much Alexander knew of India beyond the Hyphasis probably the modern Beas is uncertain; there is no conclusive proof that he had heard of the Ganges.
Alexander solved it by cutting it with a swipe, incorporating another act full of symbolism to his actions of confirmation and showing off his power and legitimation of his ambitions. He was imaginative and not without romantic impulses; figures like AchillesHeraclesand Dionysus were often in his mind, and the salutation at the oracle of Amon clearly influenced his thoughts and ambitions ever afterward.
Crossing the Oxus, he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus, who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. In the fourth century BC there was no such tradition that attracted the attention of the hagiographers.
Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus: In addition, he legitimized previous so-called marriages between soldiers and native women and gave them rich wedding gifts, no doubt to encourage such unions.
The prince had first in Lysimachus and then in Leonidas two severe pedagogues who submitted their infancy to a rigorous discipline. But let him by all means speak in whatever way he desires, provided that you remember that he holds out customs in as much abhorrence as our language. Alexander returned to Macedon and prepared for his Persian expedition.
After commanding his general Antipater to preserve Greece in peace, in the spring of BC the Hellespont crossed with thirty-seven thousand men ready to avenge the offenses inflicted by the Persians on their homeland in the past.
After their first victory, the Macedonians went to the south, where the Persian stronghold Sardes surrendered and the Macedonians could occupy Greek cities like EphesusPrieneand Miletus.
He spent the winter organizing Egyptwhere he employed Egyptian governors, keeping the army under a separate Macedonian command.
This page was created in ; last modified on 26 October He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians, and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people.
The army continued advancing as far as the river Hydaspes but at this point the Macedonians refused to go farther as reports were coming of far more larger and dangerous armies ahead equipped with many elephants and chariots. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IVexecuted.
Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line.
But Alexander will never see this happen. Darius's capital at Sardis fell easily, followed by the cities of Miletus and Halicarnassus.
From there he was engaged in his plans to prepare a wide expedition of conquest to Arabia, which was truncated by his untimely death on June 13, BC, provoked by the fever, perhaps originated by previous and chronic diseases never healed.
Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphia sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs.
Shortly before beginning of the planned Arabian campaign, he contracted a high fever after attending a private party at his friend's Medius of Larisa.
With the fall of Gaza, the whole Eastern Mediterranean coast was now secured and firmly in the hands of the Macedonians. He believed in this way to ensure the success of his plans for universal domination.
Alexander as king In the summer of B.C.E. at the ancient Macedonian capital of Aegai, Alexander's sister married her uncle Alexander. During this event Philip was assassinated by a young Macedonian noble, Pausanias.
A Murder in Macedon (Alexander the Great Mysteries, Book 1): Intrigue and murder in Ancient Greece Jun 11, In the Footsteps of Alexander: The King Who Conquered the Ancient World (Landscape History) Aug 1, by Miles Doleac.
Biography Subject. Alexander the Great. Brand. Alexander.
Belcho USA. pricegems. Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July BC, although the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus.
Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was. Alexander the Great Alexander of Macedon Biography. King of Macedonia and Conqueror of the Persian Empire. Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times.
Alexander V of Macedon (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Εʹ ὁ Μακεδών; died BC) was the third and youngest son of Cassander and Thessalonica of Macedon, who was a half-sister of Alexander the Great. He ruled as King of Macedon along with his brother Antipater from to BC. When Antipater murdered their mother and ousted him from power, Alexander turned to Pyrrhus and.
Philip of Macedon Philip II of Macedon Biography ( - BC) King of Macedonia and Conqueror of Illyria, Thrace, and Greece. Macedonia is an ancient kingdom located in south-eastern Europe, north of Greece, west of Thrace, and east of Illyria.A biography of alexander the great a king of macedon